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Introduction to MongoDB

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  • Document Database
  • Key Features
Important

MongoDB 6.0 binaries are currently available only as release candidates. Release candidates can be used for early testing of new features, but are not suitable for production deployments.

This version of the manual is for an upcoming release and is currently a work in progress.

A record in MongoDB is a document, which is a data structure composed of field and value pairs. MongoDB documents are similar to JSON objects. The values of fields may include other documents, arrays, and arrays of documents.

A MongoDB document.

The advantages of using documents are:

  • Documents correspond to native data types in many programming languages.
  • Embedded documents and arrays reduce need for expensive joins.
  • Dynamic schema supports fluent polymorphism.

MongoDB stores documents in collections. Collections are analogous to tables in relational databases.

In addition to collections, MongoDB supports:

MongoDB provides high performance data persistence. In particular,

  • Support for embedded data models reduces I/O activity on database system.
  • Indexes support faster queries and can include keys from embedded documents and arrays.

The MongoDB Query API supports read and write operations (CRUD) as well as:

Tip
See also:

MongoDB's replication facility, called replica set, provides:

  • automatic failover
  • data redundancy.

A replica set is a group of MongoDB servers that maintain the same data set, providing redundancy and increasing data availability.

MongoDB provides horizontal scalability as part of its core functionality:

  • Sharding distributes data across a cluster of machines.
  • Starting in 3.4, MongoDB supports creating zones of data based on the shard key. In a balanced cluster, MongoDB directs reads and writes covered by a zone only to those shards inside the zone. See the Zones manual page for more information.

MongoDB supports multiple storage engines:

In addition, MongoDB provides pluggable storage engine API that allows third parties to develop storage engines for MongoDB.

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