A MongoDB sharded cluster consists of the following components:
config servers: Config servers store metadata and configuration settings for the cluster. As of MongoDB 3.4, config servers must be deployed as a replica set (CSRS).
In a production cluster, ensure that data is redundant and that your systems are highly available. Consider the following for a production sharded cluster deployment:
Deploy Config Servers as a 3 member replica set
Deploy each Shard as a 3 member replica set
Deploy one or more
Where possible, consider deploying one member of each replica set in a site suitable for being a disaster recovery location.
Distributing replica set members across two data centers provides benefit over a single data center. In a two data center distribution,
If one of the data centers goes down, the data is still available for reads unlike a single data center distribution.
If the data center with a minority of the members goes down, the replica set can still serve write operations as well as read operations.
However, if the data center with the majority of the members goes down, the replica set becomes read-only.
If possible, distribute members across at least three data centers. For config server replica sets (CSRS), the best practice is to distribute across three (or more depending on the number of members) centers. If the cost of the third data center is prohibitive, one distribution possibility is to evenly distribute the data bearing members across the two data centers and store the remaining member in the cloud if your company policy allows.
Sharding requires at least two shards to distribute sharded data. Single shard sharded clusters may be useful if you plan on enabling sharding in the near future, but do not need to at the time of deployment.
mongos routers support high availability and scalability
when deploying multiple
mongos instances. If a proxy or load
balancer is between the application and the
mongos routers, you
must configure it for client affinity. Client affinity allows
every connection from a single client to reach the same
For shard-level high availability, either:
mongosinstances on the same hardware where
mongosinstances are already running.
mongosrouters at the application level.
mongos routers communicate frequently with your config
servers. As you increase the number of routers, performance may degrade.
If performance degrades, reduce the number of routers. Your deployment
should not have more than 30
The following diagram shows a common sharded cluster architecture used in production:
For testing and development, you can deploy a sharded cluster with a minimum number of components. These non-production clusters have the following components:
The following diagram shows a sharded cluster architecture used for development only:
Use the test cluster architecture for testing and development only.