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2d Indexes

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  • Use Cases
  • Get Started
  • Details
  • Supported Calculations
  • Compound 2d Indexes
  • sparse Property
  • Learn More

2d indexes support queries on data stored as points on a two-dimensional plane. The 2d index is intended for queries on legacy coordinate pairs.

To create a 2d index, specify the string 2d as the index type:

db.<collection>.createIndex( { <location field> : "2d" } )

You cannot use 2d indexes for queries on GeoJSON objects. To enable queries on GeoJSON objects, use 2dsphere indexes.


When creating a 2d index, the first value (longitude) must be between -180 and 180, inclusive. The second value (latitude) must be between -90 and 90, inclusive. However, these default limits can be overridden with the min and max options on 2d indexes. Unlike 2dsphere index coordinates, 2d indexes values do not "wrap" around a sphere.

Use a 2d index to query and perform calculation on data represented within a two-dimensional plane. For example:

  • An application analyzing visual similarities between two art pieces.

  • A calculator that can perform calculations on two-dimensional graphs.

  • A mobile game that calculates distances between players on a two-dimensional map.

To learn how to create and query 2d indexes, see:

2d indexes support calculations on a flat, Euclidean plane.

For spherical geometry calculations, store your data as as GeoJSON objects and use a 2dsphere index to support geospatial queries.

You can create compound 2d indexes that reference two fields:

  • The first field must be the location field. The index constructs queries that first select on this field.

  • The second field further filters results based on additional criteria.

A compound 2d index can cover queries.

2d indexes are always sparse and ignore the sparse option. If a document lacks a 2d index field (or the field is null or an empty array), MongoDB does not add an entry for the document to the 2d index. For inserts, MongoDB inserts the document but does not add to the 2d index.

For a compound index that includes a 2d index key along with keys of other types, only the 2d index field determines whether the index references a document.


2dsphere Index Versions


Create a 2d Index