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  • Definition
  • Behavior
  • Example

If an update operation with upsert: true results in an insert of a document, then $setOnInsert assigns the specified values to the fields in the document. If the update operation does not result in an insert, $setOnInsert does nothing.

You can specify the upsert option for:

{ $setOnInsert: { <field1>: <value1>, ... } },
{ upsert: true }

To specify a <field> in an embedded document or in an array, use dot notation.

Starting in MongoDB 5.0, update operators process document fields with string-based names in lexicographic order. Fields with numeric names are processed in numeric order. See Update Operators Behavior for details.

Starting in MongoDB 5.0, mongod no longer raises an error when you use an update operator like $setOnInsert with an empty operand expression ( { } ). An empty update results in no changes and no oplog entry is created (meaning that the operation is a no-op).

The products collection contains no documents.

Insert a new document using db.collection.updateOne() the upsert: true parameter.

{ _id: 1 },
$set: { item: "apple" },
$setOnInsert: { defaultQty: 100 }
{ upsert: true }

MongoDB uses <query> to create a new document with _id: 1. $setOnInsert updates the document as specified.

The products collection contains the newly-inserted document:

{ "_id" : 1, "item" : "apple", "defaultQty" : 100 }

When the upsert parameter is true db.collection.updateOne():

  • creates a new document

  • applies the $set operation

  • applies the $setOnInsert operation

If db.collection.updateOne() matches an existing document, MongoDB only applies the $set operation.


See also: