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Change a Document

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  • Overview
  • A Note About _id
  • Update
  • Parameters
  • Return Values
  • Replace
  • Parameters
  • Return Values
  • Additional Information
  • API Documentation

In this guide, you can learn how to change documents in MongoDB using update and replace operations.

Update operations change the fields that you specify while leaving other fields and values unchanged. Replace operations remove all existing fields except for _id in a document and substitute the deleted fields with the new fields and values you specify.

In MongoDB, all methods to change documents follow the same pattern:

Change method signature
Note
Placeholder

changeX is a placeholder and not a real method.

The pattern expects you to:

  • Specify a query filter to match one or more documents to change.
  • Specify the field and value changes.
  • Specify options to modify behavior, if needed.

The driver provides the following methods to change documents:

  • UpdateByID()
  • UpdateOne()
  • UpdateMany()
  • ReplaceOne()
  • BulkWrite() (not discussed in this guide)
  • FindOneAndUpdate() (not discussed in this guide)
  • FindOneAndReplace() (not discussed in this guide)

Each document in a MongoDB collection has a unique and immutable _id field. You cannot use update and replace operations to change the _id field. If you attempt to change this field, the update and replace methods return a WriteError.

Use the UpdateOne() or UpdateByID() method to update a single document.

Use the UpdateMany() method to update multiple documents.

Each method takes an update document that includes at least one update operator. The update operator specifies the type of update to perform. The update document also includes the fields and values that describe the change. Update documents use the following format:

bson.D{{"<update operator>", bson.D{{"<field>", <value>},
{"<field>", <value>}, ... }},
{"<update operator>", ... }, ... }

See the MongoDB server manual for a complete list of update operators and descriptions.

Note
Aggregation Pipelines in Update Operations

If you are using MongoDB Server version 4.2 or later, you can use aggregation pipelines made up of a subset of aggregation stages in update operations. To learn more about the aggregation stages MongoDB supports in aggregation pipelines, see our tutorial on performing updates with aggregation pipelines.

UpdateOne(), UpdateByID(), and UpdateMany() return an UpdateResult type that contains information about the update operation if the operation is successful. The UpdateResult type contains the following properties:

Property
Description
MatchedCount
The number of documents matched by the filter
ModifiedCount
The number of documents modified by the operation
UpsertedCount
The number of documents upserted by the operation
UpsertedID
The _id of the upserted document, or nil if there is none

If multiple documents match the query filter passed to UpdateOne(), the method selects and updates the first matched document. If no documents match the query filter, the update operation makes no changes.

The following document describes an employee:

{
"_id" : 2158,
"name" : "Mary Shelley",
"department" : "Marketing",
"role" : "Marketing Analyst",
"bonus" : 2500,
...
}

The following example uses the UpdateByID() method to:

  • Match the document where the _id value is 2158.
  • Set the name field to "Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley" and the role field to "Marketing Director".
  • Increment the value of the bonus field by 2000.
filter := bson.D{{"_id", 2158}}
update := bson.D{{"$set", bson.D{{"name", "Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley"},
{"role", "Marketing Director"}}}, {"$inc", bson.D{{"bonus", 2000}}}}
result, err := collection.UpdateOne(context.TODO(), filter, update)
fmt.Printf("Documents matched: %v\n", result.MatchedCount)
fmt.Printf("Documents updated: %v\n", result.ModifiedCount)

The following shows the updated document resulting from the preceding update operation:

{
"_id" : 2158,
"name" : "Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley",
"department" : "Marketing",
"role" : "Marketing Director",
"bonus" : 4500,
...
}

Use the ReplaceOne() method to replace a single document.

ReplaceOne() expects a replacement document, which is the document that you want to take the place of an existing document. Replacement documents use the following format:

bson.D{{"<field>", "<value>"}, {"<field>", "<value>"}, ... }

ReplaceOne() returns an UpdateResult type that contains information about the replace operation if the operation is successful. The UpdateResult type contains the following properties:

Property
Description
MatchedCount
The number of documents matched by the filter
ModifiedCount
The number of documents modified by the operation
UpsertedCount
The number of documents upserted by the operation
UpsertedID
The _id of the upserted document, or nil if there is none

If multiple documents match the query filter passed to ReplaceOne(), the method selects and replaces the first matched document. Your replace operation fails if no documents match the query filter.

The following document describes a kitchen item:

{
"_id" : 2056,
"item" : "Mug",
"brand" : "Simply Ceramics",
"price" : 2.99,
"material" : "Glass"
}

The following example uses the ReplaceOne() method to substitute this document with one that contains an item field with a value of "Cup" and a quantity field with a value of 107:

filter := bson.D{{"_id", 2056}}
replacement := bson.D{{"item", "Cup"}, {"quantity", 107}}
result, err := collection.ReplaceOne(context.TODO(), filter, replacement)
fmt.Printf("Documents matched: %v\n", result.MatchedCount)
fmt.Printf("Documents replaced: %v\n", result.ModifiedCount)

The replaced document contains the contents of the replacement document and the immutable _id field as follows:

{
"_id" : 2056,
"item" : "Cup",
"quantity" : 107
}

For runnable examples of the update and replace operations, see the following usage examples:

To learn more about the operations mentioned, see the following guides:

To learn more about updating array elements, see Update Arrays in a Document.

To learn more about any of the methods or types discussed in this guide, see the following API Documentation:

←  Delete a DocumentUpdate Arrays in a Document →
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