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$group (aggregation)


Groups documents together for the purpose of calculating aggregate values based on a collection of documents. Practically, group often supports tasks such as average page views for each page in a website on a daily basis.

The output of $group depends on how you define groups. Begin by specifying an identifier (i.e. a _id field) for the group you’re creating with this pipeline. You can specify a single field from the documents in the pipeline, a previously computed value, or an aggregate key made up from several incoming fields. Aggregate keys may resemble the following document:

{ _id : { author: '$author', pageViews: '$pageViews', posted: '$posted' } }

With the exception of the _id field, $group cannot output nested documents.


The output of $group is not ordered.

Every group expression must specify an _id field. You may specify the _id field as a dotted field path reference, a document with multiple fields enclosed in braces (i.e. { and }), or a constant value.


Use $project as needed to rename the grouped field after an $group operation, if necessary.

Consider the following example:

    { $group : {
        _id : "$author",
        docsPerAuthor : { $sum : 1 },
        viewsPerAuthor : { $sum : "$pageViews" }

This groups by the author field and computes two fields, the first docsPerAuthor is a counter field that adds one for each document with a given author field using the $sum function. The viewsPerAuthor field is the sum of all of the pageViews fields in the documents for each group.

Each field defined for the $group must use one of the group aggregation function listed below to generate its composite value:


The aggregation system currently stores $group operations in memory, which may cause problems when processing a larger number of groups.