Docs Menu

Docs HomeMongoDB Manual

$jsonSchema

On this page

  • Definition
  • Syntax
  • JSON Schema
  • Examples
$jsonSchema

The $jsonSchema operator matches documents that satisfy the specified JSON Schema.

The $jsonSchema operator expression has the following syntax:

{ $jsonSchema: <JSON Schema object> }

Where the JSON Schema object is formatted according to draft 4 of the JSON Schema standard.

{ <keyword1>: <value1>, ... }

For example:

{
$jsonSchema: {
required: [ "name", "major", "gpa", "address" ],
properties: {
name: {
bsonType: "string",
description: "must be a string and is required"
},
address: {
bsonType: "object",
required: [ "zipcode" ],
properties: {
"street": { bsonType: "string" },
"zipcode": { bsonType: "string" }
}
}
}
}
}

MongoDB supports draft 4 of JSON Schema, including core specification and validation specification, with some differences. For details, see Extensions and Omissions.

For more information about JSON Schema, see the official website.

You can specify the following keywords in your JSON Schema.

Note

MongoDB implements a subset of keywords available in JSON Schema. For a complete list of omissions, see Omissions.

Keyword
Type
Definition
Behavior
additionalItems
arrays
boolean or object
If an object, must be a valid JSON Schema
additionalProperties
objects
boolean or object

If true, additional fields are allowed. If false, they are not. If a valid JSON Schema object is specified, additional fields must validate against the schema.

Defaults to true.

allOf
all types
array of JSON Schema objects
Field must match all specified schemas
anyOf
all types
array of JSON Schema objects
Field must match at least one of the specified schemas
bsonType
all types
string alias or array of string aliases
Accepts same string aliases used for the $type operator
dependencies
objects
object
Describes field or schema dependencies
description
N/A
string
A string that describes the schema and has no effect on validation. Starting in MongoDB 5.1, if the description field is specified, MongoDB includes the description in the error output when a document fails validation.
enum
all types
array of values
Enumerates all possible values of the field
exclusiveMaximum
numbers
boolean
If true and field is a number, maximum is an exclusive maximum. Otherwise, it is an inclusive maximum.
exclusiveMinimum
numbers
boolean
If true, minimum is an exclusive minimum. Otherwise, it is an inclusive minimum.
items
arrays
object or array
Must be either a valid JSON Schema, or an array of valid JSON Schemas
maximum
numbers
number
Indicates the maximum value of the field
maxItems
arrays
integer
Indicates the maximum length of array
maxLength
strings
integer
Indicates the maximum length of the field
maxProperties
objects
integer
Indicates the field's maximum number of properties
minimum
numbers
number
Indicates the minimum value of the field
minItems
arrays
integer
Indicates the minimum length of array
minLength
strings
integer
Indicates the minimum length of the field
minProperties
objects
integer
Indicates the field's minimum number of properties
multipleOf
numbers
number
Field must be a multiple of this value
not
all types
a JSON Schema object
Field must not match the schema
oneOf
all types
array of JSON Schema objects
Field must match exactly one of the specified schemas
pattern
strings
string containing a regex
Field must match the regular expression
patternProperties
objects
object
In addition to properties requirements, each property name of this object must be a valid regular expression
properties
objects
object
A valid JSON Schema where each value is also a valid JSON Schema object
required
objects
array of unique strings
Object's property set must contain all the specified elements in the array
title
N/A
string
A descriptive title string with no effect.
type
all types
string or array of unique strings

Enumerates the possible JSON types of the field. Available types are "object", "array", "number", "boolean", "string", and "null".

MongoDB's implementation of the JSON Schema does not support the "integer" type. Use the bsonType keyword and the "int" or "long" types instead.

uniqueItems
arrays
boolean
If true, each item in the array must be unique. Otherwise, no uniqueness constraint is enforced.

MongoDB's implementation of JSON Schema includes the addition of the bsonType keyword, which allows you to use all BSON types in the $jsonSchema operator. bsonType accepts the same string aliases used for the $type operator.

The following are not supported in MongoDB's implementation of JSON Schema:

  • Hypertext definitions in draft 4 of the JSON Schema spec.

  • The keywords:

    • $ref

    • $schema

    • default

    • definitions

    • format

    • id

  • The integer type. You must use the BSON type int or long with the bsonType keyword.

  • Hypermedia and linking properties of JSON Schema, including the use of JSON References and JSON Pointers.

  • Unknown keywords.

For examples using $jsonSchema, see the following pages:

←  $expr$mod →
Share Feedback
© 2022 MongoDB, Inc.

About

  • Careers
  • Investor Relations
  • Legal Notices
  • Privacy Notices
  • Security Information
  • Trust Center
© 2022 MongoDB, Inc.