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$densify (aggregation)

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  • Definition
  • Syntax
  • Behavior and Restrictions
  • Examples
$densify

New in version 5.1.

Creates new documents in a sequence of documents where certain values in a field are missing.

You can use $densify to:

  • Fill gaps in time series data.
  • Add missing values between groups of data.
  • Populate your data with a specified range of values.

The $densify stage has this syntax:

{
$densify: {
field: <fieldName>,
partitionByFields: [ <field 1>, <field 2> ... <field n> ],
range: {
step: <number>,
unit: <time unit>,
bounds: < "full" || "partition" > || [ < lower bound >, < upper bound > ]
}
}
}

The $densify stage takes a document with these fields:

Field
Necessity
Description
Required

The field to densify. The values of the specified field must either be all numeric values or all dates.

Documents that do not contain the specified field continue through the pipeline unmodified.

To specify a <field> in an embedded document or in an array, use dot notation.

For restrictions, see field Restrictions.

Optional

The set of fields to act as the compound key to group the documents. In the $densify stage, each group of documents is known as a partition.

If you omit this field, $densify uses one partition for the entire collection.

For an example, see Densifiction with Partitions.

For restrictions, see partitionByFields Restrictions.

Required

An object that specifies how the data is densified.

Required

You can specify range.bounds as either:

  • An array: [ < lower bound >, < upper bound > ],
  • A string: either "full" or "partition".

If bounds is an array:

  • $densify adds documents spanning the range of values within the specified bounds.
  • The data type for the bounds must correspond to the data type in the field being densified.
  • For behavior details, see range.bounds Behavior.

If bounds is "full":

  • $densify adds documents spanning the full range of values of the field being densified.

If bounds is "partition":

  • $densify adds documents to each partition, similar to if you had run a full range densification on each partition individually.
Required

The amount to increment the field value in each document. $densify creates a new document for each step between the existing documents.

If range.unit is specified, step must be an integer. Otherwise, step can be any numeric value.

Required if field is a date.

The unit to apply to the step field when incrementing date values in field.

You can specify one of the following values for unit as a string:

  • millisecond
  • second
  • minute
  • hour
  • day
  • week
  • month
  • quarter
  • year

For an example, see Densify Time Series Data.

For documents that contain the specified field, $densify errors if:

  • Any document in the collection has a field value of type date and the unit field is not specified.
  • Any document in the collection has a field value of type numeric and the unit field is specified.
  • The field name begins with $. You must rename the field if you want to densify it. To rename fields, use $project.

$densify errors if any field name in the partitionByFields array:

  • Evaluates to a non-string value.
  • Begins with $.

If range.bounds is an array:

  • The lower bound indicates the start value for the added documents, irrespective of documents already in the collection.
  • The lower bound is inclusive.
  • The upper bound is exclusive.
  • $densify does not filter out documents with field values outside of the specified bounds.

$densify does not guarantee sort order of the documents it outputs.

To guarantee sort order, use $sort on the field you want to sort by.

Create a weather collection that contains temperature readings over four hour intervals.

db.weather.insertMany( [
{
"metadata": { "sensorId": 5578, "type": "temperature" },
"timestamp": ISODate("2021-05-18T00:00:00.000Z"),
"temp": 12
},
{
"metadata": { "sensorId": 5578, "type": "temperature" },
"timestamp": ISODate("2021-05-18T04:00:00.000Z"),
"temp": 11
},
{
"metadata": { "sensorId": 5578, "type": "temperature" },
"timestamp": ISODate("2021-05-18T08:00:00.000Z"),
"temp": 11
},
{
"metadata": { "sensorId": 5578, "type": "temperature" },
"timestamp": ISODate("2021-05-18T12:00:00.000Z"),
"temp": 12
}
] )

This example uses the $densify stage to fill in the gaps between the four-hour intervals to achieve hourly granularity for the data points:

db.weather.aggregate( [
{
$densify: {
field: "timestamp",
range: {
step: 1,
unit: "hour",
bounds:[ ISODate("2021-05-18T00:00:00.000Z"), ISODate("2021-05-18T08:00:00.000Z") ]
}
}
}
] )

In the example:

  • The $densify stage fills in the gaps of time in between the recorded temperatures.

    • field: "timestamp" densifies the timestamp field.
    • range:

      • step: 1 increments the timestamp field by 1 unit.
      • unit: hour densifies the timestamp field by the hour.
      • bounds: [ ISODate("2021-05-18T00:00:00.000Z"), ISODate("2021-05-18T08:00:00.000Z") ] sets the range of time that is densified.

In the following output, the $densify stage fills in the gaps of time between the hours of 00:00:00 and 08:00:00.

[
{
_id: ObjectId("618c207c63056cfad0ca4309"),
metadata: { sensorId: 5578, type: 'temperature' },
timestamp: ISODate("2021-05-18T00:00:00.000Z"),
temp: 12
},
{ timestamp: ISODate("2021-05-18T01:00:00.000Z") },
{ timestamp: ISODate("2021-05-18T02:00:00.000Z") },
{ timestamp: ISODate("2021-05-18T03:00:00.000Z") },
{
_id: ObjectId("618c207c63056cfad0ca430a"),
metadata: { sensorId: 5578, type: 'temperature' },
timestamp: ISODate("2021-05-18T04:00:00.000Z"),
temp: 11
},
{ timestamp: ISODate("2021-05-18T05:00:00.000Z") },
{ timestamp: ISODate("2021-05-18T06:00:00.000Z") },
{ timestamp: ISODate("2021-05-18T07:00:00.000Z") },
{
_id: ObjectId("618c207c63056cfad0ca430b"),
metadata: { sensorId: 5578, type: 'temperature' },
timestamp: ISODate("2021-05-18T08:00:00.000Z"),
temp: 11
}
{
_id: ObjectId("618c207c63056cfad0ca430c"),
metadata: { sensorId: 5578, type: 'temperature' },
timestamp: ISODate("2021-05-18T12:00:00.000Z"),
temp: 12
}
]

Create a coffee collection that contains data for two varieties of coffee beans:

db.coffee.insertMany( [
{
"altitude": 600,
"variety": "Arabica Typica",
"score": 68.3
},
{
"altitude": 750,
"variety": "Arabica Typica",
"score": 69.5
},
{
"altitude": 950,
"variety": "Arabica Typica",
"score": 70.5
},
{
"altitude": 1250,
"variety": "Gesha",
"score": 88.15
},
{
"altitude": 1700,
"variety": "Gesha",
"score": 95.5,
"price": 1029
}
] )

This example uses $densify to densify the altitude field for each coffee variety:

db.coffee.aggregate( [
{
$densify: {
field: "altitude",
partitionByFields: [ "variety" ],
range: {
bounds: "full",
step: 200
}
}
}
] )

The example aggregation:

  • Partitions the documents by variety to create one grouping for Arabica Typica and one for Gesha coffee.
  • Specifies a full range, meaning that the data is densified across the full range of existing documents for each partition.
  • Specifies a step of 200, meaning new documents are created at altitude intervals of 200.

The aggregation outputs the following documents:

[
{
_id: ObjectId("618c031814fbe03334480475"),
altitude: 600,
variety: 'Arabica Typica',
score: 68.3
},
{
_id: ObjectId("618c031814fbe03334480476"),
altitude: 750,
variety: 'Arabica Typica',
score: 69.5
},
{ variety: 'Arabica Typica', altitude: 800 },
{
_id: ObjectId("618c031814fbe03334480477"),
altitude: 950,
variety: 'Arabica Typica',
score: 70.5
},
{ variety: 'Gesha', altitude: 600 },
{ variety: 'Gesha', altitude: 800 },
{ variety: 'Gesha', altitude: 1000 },
{ variety: 'Gesha', altitude: 1200 },
{
_id: ObjectId("618c031814fbe03334480478"),
altitude: 1250,
variety: 'Gesha',
score: 88.15
},
{ variety: 'Gesha', altitude: 1400 },
{ variety: 'Gesha', altitude: 1600 },
{
_id: ObjectId("618c031814fbe03334480479"),
altitude: 1700,
variety: 'Gesha',
score: 95.5,
price: 1029
},
{ variety: 'Arabica Typica', altitude: 1000 },
{ variety: 'Arabica Typica', altitude: 1200 },
{ variety: 'Arabica Typica', altitude: 1400 },
{ variety: 'Arabica Typica', altitude: 1600 }
]

This image visualizes the documents created with $densify:

State of the coffee collection after full-range densifiction
  • The darker squares represent the original documents in the collection.
  • The lighter squares represent the documents created with $densify.

This example uses $densify to only densify gaps in the altitude field within each variety:

db.coffee.aggregate( [
{
$densify: {
field: "altitude",
partitionByFields: [ "variety" ],
range: {
bounds: "partition",
step: 200
}
}
}
] )

The example aggregation:

  • Partitions the documents by variety to create one grouping for Arabica Typica and one for Gesha coffee.
  • Specifies a partition range, meaning that the data is densified within each partition.

    • For the Arabica Typica partition, the range is 600-900.
    • For the Gesha partition, the range is 1250-1700.
  • Specifies a step of 200, meaning new documents are created at altitude intervals of 200.

The aggregation outputs the following documents:

[
{
_id: ObjectId("618c031814fbe03334480475"),
altitude: 600,
variety: 'Arabica Typica',
score: 68.3
},
{
_id: ObjectId("618c031814fbe03334480476"),
altitude: 750,
variety: 'Arabica Typica',
score: 69.5
},
{ variety: 'Arabica Typica', altitude: 800 },
{
_id: ObjectId("618c031814fbe03334480477"),
altitude: 950,
variety: 'Arabica Typica',
score: 70.5
},
{
_id: ObjectId("618c031814fbe03334480478"),
altitude: 1250,
variety: 'Gesha',
score: 88.15
},
{ variety: 'Gesha', altitude: 1450 },
{ variety: 'Gesha', altitude: 1650 },
{
_id: ObjectId("618c031814fbe03334480479"),
altitude: 1700,
variety: 'Gesha',
score: 95.5,
price: 1029
}
]

This image visualizes the documents created with $densify:

State of the coffee collection after partition range densification
  • The darker squares represent the original documents in the collection.
  • The lighter squares represent the documents created with $densify.
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