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Tips for JSON Schema Validation

On this page

  • _id Field and additionalProperties: false
  • Validation for null Field Values
  • Validation with Encrypted Fields

This page describes best practices for JSON schema validation to help avoid common issues.

When you specify additionalProperties: false in your JSON schema, MongoDB rejects documents that contain fields not included in your schema's properties object.

Because all objects contain an automatically-generated _id field, when you set additionalProperties: false, you must include the _id field in your properties object. If you don't, all documents are rejected.

For example, with this validation, no documents are valid:

{
"$jsonSchema": {
"required": [ "_id", "storeLocation" ],
"properties": {
"storeLocation": { "bsonType": "string" }
},
"additionalProperties": false
}
}

This validation ensures that storeLocation is a string. However, the properties object does not contain an _id field.

To allow documents in the collection, you must update the properties object to include an _id field:

{
"$jsonSchema": {
"required": [ "_id", "storeLocation" ],
"properties": {
"_id": { "bsonType": "objectId" },
"storeLocation": { "bsonType": "string" }
},
"additionalProperties": false
}
}

Your application may be configured to set missing field values to null, instead of not including those fields in the object sent to the collection.

If your schema validates data types for a field, to insert documents with a null value for that field, you must explicitly allow null as a valid BSON type.

For example, this schema validation does not allow documents where storeLocation is null:

db.createCollection("sales",
{
validator:
{
"$jsonSchema": {
"properties": {
"storeLocation": { "bsonType": "string" }
}
}
}
}
)

With the preceding validation, this document is rejected:

db.store.insertOne( { storeLocation: null } )

Alternatively, this schema validation allows null values for storeLocation:

db.createCollection("store",
{
validator:
{
"$jsonSchema": {
"properties": {
"storeLocation": { "bsonType": [ "null", "string" ] }
}
}
}
}
)

With the preceding validation, this document is allowed:

db.store.insertOne( { storeLocation: null } )

Note

null Fields Compared with Missing Fields

null field values are not the same as missing fields. If a field is missing from a document, MongoDB does not validate that field.

If you have Client-Side Field Level Encryption or Queryable Encryption enabled on a collection, validation is subject to the following restrictions:

  • For CSFLE, when running collMod, the libmongocrypt library prefers the the JSON encryption schema specified in the command. This enables setting a schema on a collection that does not yet have one.

  • For Queryable Encryption, any JSON schema that includes an encrypted field results in a query analysis error.

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Specify Validation With Query Operators