RealmCollection

public protocol RealmCollection : RealmCollectionBase, Equatable

A homogenous collection of Objects which can be retrieved, filtered, sorted, and operated upon.

Properties

  • The Realm which manages the collection, or nil for unmanaged collections.

    Declaration

    Swift

    var realm: Realm? { get }
  • Indicates if the collection can no longer be accessed.

    The collection can no longer be accessed if invalidate() is called on the Realm that manages the collection.

    Declaration

    Swift

    var isInvalidated: Bool { get }
  • The number of objects in the collection.

    Declaration

    Swift

    var count: Int { get }
  • A human-readable description of the objects contained in the collection.

    Declaration

    Swift

    var description: String { get }

Object Retrieval

  • Returns the first object in the collection, or nil if the collection is empty.

    Declaration

    Swift

    var first: Element? { get }
  • Returns the last object in the collection, or nil if the collection is empty.

    Declaration

    Swift

    var last: Element? { get }

Index Retrieval

  • Returns the index of an object in the collection, or nil if the object is not present.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func index(of object: Element) -> Int?

    Parameters

    object

    An object.

  • index(matching:) Default implementation

    Returns the index of the first object matching the predicate, or nil if no objects match.

    This is only applicable to ordered collections, and will abort if the collection is unordered.

    Default Implementation

    Returns the index of the first object matching the query, or nil if no objects match.

    This is only applicable to ordered collections, and will abort if the collection is unordered.

    Note

    This should only be used with classes using the @Persistable property declaration.

    • Usage:

      obj.index(matching: { $0.fooCol < 456 })
      

    Note

    See Query for more information on what query operations are available.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func index(matching predicate: NSPredicate) -> Int?

    Parameters

    predicate

    The predicate to use to filter the objects.

  • index(matching:_:) Default implementation

    Returns the index of the first object matching the predicate, or nil if no objects match.

    This is only applicable to ordered collections, and will abort if the collection is unordered.

    Default Implementation

    Returns the index of the first object matching the given predicate, or nil if no objects match.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func index(matching predicateFormat: String, _ args: Any...) -> Int?

    Parameters

    predicateFormat

    A predicate format string, optionally followed by a variable number of arguments.

Object Retrieval

  • Returns an array containing the objects in the collection at the indexes specified by a given index set.

    Warning

    warning Throws if an index supplied in the IndexSet is out of bounds.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func objects(at indexes: IndexSet) -> [Element]

    Parameters

    indexes

    The indexes in the collection to select objects from.

Filtering

  • filter(_:_:) Default implementation

    Returns a Results containing all objects matching the given predicate in the collection.

    Default Implementation

    Returns a Results containing all objects matching the given predicate in the collection.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func filter(_ predicateFormat: String, _ args: Any...) -> Results<Element>

    Parameters

    predicateFormat

    A predicate format string, optionally followed by a variable number of arguments.

  • Returns a Results containing all objects matching the given predicate in the collection.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func filter(_ predicate: NSPredicate) -> Results<Element>

    Parameters

    predicate

    The predicate to use to filter the objects.

Sorting

  • Returns a Results containing the objects in the collection, but sorted.

    Warning

    Collections may only be sorted by properties of boolean, Date, NSDate, single and double-precision floating point, integer, and string types.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func sorted<S>(by sortDescriptors: S) -> Results<Element> where S : Sequence, S.Element == SortDescriptor

    Parameters

    sortDescriptors

    A sequence of SortDescriptors to sort by.

  • Returns a Results containing distinct objects based on the specified key paths.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func distinct<S>(by keyPaths: S) -> Results<Element> where S : Sequence, S.Element == String

    Parameters

    keyPaths

    The key paths to distinct on.

Aggregate Operations

  • Returns the minimum (lowest) value of the given property among all the objects in the collection, or nil if the collection is empty.

    Warning

    Only a property whose type conforms to the MinMaxType protocol can be specified.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func min<T>(ofProperty property: String) -> T? where T : _HasPersistedType, T.PersistedType : MinMaxType

    Parameters

    property

    The name of a property whose minimum value is desired.

  • Returns the maximum (highest) value of the given property among all the objects in the collection, or nil if the collection is empty.

    Warning

    Only a property whose type conforms to the MinMaxType protocol can be specified.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func max<T>(ofProperty property: String) -> T? where T : _HasPersistedType, T.PersistedType : MinMaxType

    Parameters

    property

    The name of a property whose minimum value is desired.

  • Returns the sum of the given property for objects in the collection, or nil if the collection is empty.

    Warning

    Only names of properties of a type conforming to the AddableType protocol can be used.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func sum<T>(ofProperty property: String) -> T where T : _HasPersistedType, T.PersistedType : AddableType

    Parameters

    property

    The name of a property conforming to AddableType to calculate sum on.

  • Returns the average value of a given property over all the objects in the collection, or nil if the collection is empty.

    Warning

    Only a property whose type conforms to the AddableType protocol can be specified.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func average<T>(ofProperty property: String) -> T? where T : _HasPersistedType, T.PersistedType : AddableType

    Parameters

    property

    The name of a property whose values should be summed.

Key-Value Coding

  • Returns an Array containing the results of invoking valueForKey(_:) with key on each of the collection’s objects.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func value(forKey key: String) -> Any?

    Parameters

    key

    The name of the property whose values are desired.

  • Returns an Array containing the results of invoking valueForKeyPath(_:) with keyPath on each of the collection’s objects.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func value(forKeyPath keyPath: String) -> Any?

    Parameters

    keyPath

    The key path to the property whose values are desired.

  • Invokes setValue(_:forKey:) on each of the collection’s objects using the specified value and key.

    Warning

    This method may only be called during a write transaction.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func setValue(_ value: Any?, forKey key: String)

    Parameters

    value

    The object value.

    key

    The name of the property whose value should be set on each object.

Notifications

  • observe(keyPaths:on:_:) Default implementation

    Registers a block to be called each time the collection changes.

    The block will be asynchronously called with the initial results, and then called again after each write transaction which changes either any of the objects in the collection, or which objects are in the collection.

    The change parameter that is passed to the block reports, in the form of indices within the collection, which of the objects were added, removed, or modified during each write transaction. See the RealmCollectionChange documentation for more information on the change information supplied and an example of how to use it to update a UITableView.

    At the time when the block is called, the collection will be fully evaluated and up-to-date, and as long as you do not perform a write transaction on the same thread or explicitly call realm.refresh(), accessing it will never perform blocking work.

    If no queue is given, notifications are delivered via the standard run loop, and so can’t be delivered while the run loop is blocked by other activity. If a queue is given, notifications are delivered to that queue instead. When notifications can’t be delivered instantly, multiple notifications may be coalesced into a single notification. This can include the notification with the initial collection.

    For example, the following code performs a write transaction immediately after adding the notification block, so there is no opportunity for the initial notification to be delivered first. As a result, the initial notification will reflect the state of the Realm after the write transaction.

    let dogs = realm.objects(Dog.self)
    print("dogs.count: \(dogs?.count)") // => 0
    let token = dogs.observe { changes in
        switch changes {
        case .initial(let dogs):
            // Will print "dogs.count: 1"
            print("dogs.count: \(dogs.count)")
            break
        case .update:
            // Will not be hit in this example
            break
        case .error:
            break
        }
    }
    try! realm.write {
        let dog = Dog()
        dog.name = "Rex"
        person.dogs.append(dog)
    }
    // end of run loop execution context
    

    If no key paths are given, the block will be executed on any insertion, modification, or deletion for all object properties and the properties of any nested, linked objects. If a key path or key paths are provided, then the block will be called for changes which occur only on the provided key paths. For example, if:

    class Dog: Object {
        @Persisted var name: String
        @Persisted var age: Int
        @Persisted var toys: List<Toy>
    }
    // ...
    let dogs = realm.objects(Dog.self)
    
    let token = dogs.observe(keyPaths: ["name"]) { changes in
        switch changes {
        case .initial(let dogs):
           // ...
        case .update:
           // This case is hit:
           // - after the token is intialized
           // - when the name property of an object in the
           // collection is modified
           // - when an element is inserted or removed
           //   from the collection.
           // This block is not triggered:
           // - when a value other than name is modified on
           //   one of the elements.
        case .error:
            // ...
        }
    }
    // end of run loop execution context
    
    • If the observed key path were ["toys.brand"], then any insertion or deletion to the toys list on any of the collection’s elements would trigger the block. Changes to the brand value on any Toy that is linked to a Dog in this collection will trigger the block. Changes to a value other than brand on any Toy that is linked to a Dog in this collection would not trigger the block. Any insertion or removal to the Dog type collection being observed would also trigger a notification.
    • If the above example observed the ["toys"] key path, then any insertion, deletion, or modification to the toys list for any element in the collection would trigger the block. Changes to any value on any Toy that is linked to a Dog in this collection would not trigger the block. Any insertion or removal to the Dog type collection being observed would still trigger a notification.

    Note

    Multiple notification tokens on the same object which filter for separate key paths do not filter exclusively. If one key path change is satisfied for one notification token, then all notification token blocks for that object will execute.

    You must retain the returned token for as long as you want updates to be sent to the block. To stop receiving updates, call invalidate() on the token.

    Warning

    This method cannot be called during a write transaction, or when the containing Realm is read-only.

    Default Implementation

    Registers a block to be called each time the collection changes.

    The block will be asynchronously called with the initial results, and then called again after each write transaction which changes either any of the objects in the collection, or which objects are in the collection.

    The change parameter that is passed to the block reports, in the form of indices within the collection, which of the objects were added, removed, or modified during each write transaction. See the RealmCollectionChange documentation for more information on the change information supplied and an example of how to use it to update a UITableView.

    At the time when the block is called, the collection will be fully evaluated and up-to-date, and as long as you do not perform a write transaction on the same thread or explicitly call realm.refresh(), accessing it will never perform blocking work.

    If no queue is given, notifications are delivered via the standard run loop, and so can’t be delivered while the run loop is blocked by other activity. If a queue is given, notifications are delivered to that queue instead. When notifications can’t be delivered instantly, multiple notifications may be coalesced into a single notification. This can include the notification with the initial collection.

    For example, the following code performs a write transaction immediately after adding the notification block, so there is no opportunity for the initial notification to be delivered first. As a result, the initial notification will reflect the state of the Realm after the write transaction.

    let dogs = realm.objects(Dog.self)
    print("dogs.count: \(dogs?.count)") // => 0
    let token = dogs.observe { changes in
        switch changes {
        case .initial(let dogs):
            // Will print "dogs.count: 1"
            print("dogs.count: \(dogs.count)")
            break
        case .update:
            // Will not be hit in this example
            break
        case .error:
            break
        }
    }
    try! realm.write {
        let dog = Dog()
        dog.name = "Rex"
        person.dogs.append(dog)
    }
    // end of run loop execution context
    

    If no key paths are given, the block will be executed on any insertion, modification, or deletion for all object properties and the properties of any nested, linked objects. If a key path or key paths are provided, then the block will be called for changes which occur only on the provided key paths. For example, if:

    class Dog: Object {
        @Persisted var name: String
        @Persisted var age: Int
        @Persisted var toys: List<Toy>
    }
    // ...
    let dogs = realm.objects(Dog.self)
    
    let token = dogs.observe(keyPaths: [\Dog.name]) { changes in
        switch changes {
        case .initial(let dogs):
           // ...
        case .update:
           // This case is hit:
           // - after the token is intialized
           // - when the name property of an object in the
           // collection is modified
           // - when an element is inserted or removed
           //   from the collection.
           // This block is not triggered:
           // - when a value other than name is modified on
           //   one of the elements.
        case .error:
            // ...
        }
    }
    // end of run loop execution context
    
    • If the observed key path were [\Dog.toys.brand], then any insertion or deletion to the toys list on any of the collection’s elements would trigger the block. Changes to the brand value on any Toy that is linked to a Dog in this collection will trigger the block. Changes to a value other than brand on any Toy that is linked to a Dog in this collection would not trigger the block. Any insertion or removal to the Dog type collection being observed would also trigger a notification.
    • If the above example observed the [\Dog.toys] key path, then any insertion, deletion, or modification to the toys list for any element in the collection would trigger the block. Changes to any value on any Toy that is linked to a Dog in this collection would not trigger the block. Any insertion or removal to the Dog type collection being observed would still trigger a notification.

    Note

    Multiple notification tokens on the same object which filter for separate key paths do not filter exclusively. If one key path change is satisfied for one notification token, then all notification token blocks for that object will execute.

    You must retain the returned token for as long as you want updates to be sent to the block. To stop receiving updates, call invalidate() on the token.

    Warning

    This method cannot be called during a write transaction, or when the containing Realm is read-only.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func observe(keyPaths: [String]?,
                 on queue: DispatchQueue?,
                 _ block: @escaping (RealmCollectionChange<Self>) -> Void) -> NotificationToken

    Parameters

    keyPaths

    Only properties contained in the key paths array will trigger the block when they are modified. If nil, notifications will be delivered for any property change on the object. String key paths which do not correspond to a valid a property will throw an exception. See description above for more detail on linked properties.

    queue

    The serial dispatch queue to receive notification on. If nil, notifications are delivered to the current thread.

    block

    The block to be called whenever a change occurs.

    Return Value

    A token which must be held for as long as you want updates to be delivered.

Frozen Objects

  • Returns if this collection is frozen

    Declaration

    Swift

    var isFrozen: Bool { get }
  • Returns a frozen (immutable) snapshot of this collection.

    The frozen copy is an immutable collection which contains the same data as this collection currently contains, but will not update when writes are made to the containing Realm. Unlike live collections, frozen collections can be accessed from any thread.

    Warning

    This method cannot be called during a write transaction, or when the containing Realm is read-only.

    Warning

    Holding onto a frozen collection for an extended period while performing write transaction on the Realm may result in the Realm file growing to large sizes. See Realm.Configuration.maximumNumberOfActiveVersions for more information.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func freeze() -> Self
  • Returns a live (mutable) version of this frozen collection.

    This method resolves a reference to a live copy of the same frozen collection. If called on a live collection, will return itself.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func thaw() -> Self?

Type-safe queries

  • where(_:) Extension method

    Returns a Results containing all objects matching the given query in the collection.

    Note

    This should only be used with classes using the @Persistable property declaration.

    • Usage:

      myCol.where {
      ($0.fooCol > 5) && ($0.barCol == "foobar")
      }
      

    Note

    See Query for more information on what query operations are available.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func `where`(_ isIncluded: ((Query<Element>) -> Query<Bool>)) -> Results<Element>

    Parameters

    isIncluded

    The query closure to use to filter the objects.

Collection protocol

  • startIndex Extension method

    The position of the first element in a non-empty collection. Identical to endIndex in an empty collection.

    Declaration

    Swift

    var startIndex: Int { get }
  • endIndex Extension method

    The collection’s “past the end” position. endIndex is not a valid argument to subscript, and is always reachable from startIndex by zero or more applications of successor().

    Declaration

    Swift

    var endIndex: Int { get }
  • index(after:) Extension method

    Returns the position immediately after the given index.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func index(after i: Int) -> Int

    Parameters

    i

    A valid index of the collection. i must be less than endIndex.

  • index(before:) Extension method

    Returns the position immediately before the given index.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func index(before i: Int) -> Int

    Parameters

    i

    A valid index of the collection. i must be greater than startIndex.

Available where Self: RealmSubscribable

Available where Element: Encodable

  • encode(to:) Extension method

    Encodes the contents of this collection into the given encoder.

    Declaration

    Swift

    public func encode(to encoder: Encoder) throws

Available where Element: ObjectBase

  • min(of:) Extension method

    Returns the minimum (lowest) value of the given property among all the objects in the collection, or nil if the collection is empty.

    Warning

    Only a property whose type conforms to the MinMaxType protocol can be specified.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func min<T>(of keyPath: KeyPath<Element, T>) -> T? where T : _HasPersistedType, T.PersistedType : MinMaxType

    Parameters

    keyPath

    The keyPath of a property whose minimum value is desired.

  • max(of:) Extension method

    Returns the maximum (highest) value of the given property among all the objects in the collection, or nil if the collection is empty.

    Warning

    Only a property whose type conforms to the MinMaxType protocol can be specified.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func max<T>(of keyPath: KeyPath<Element, T>) -> T? where T : _HasPersistedType, T.PersistedType : MinMaxType

    Parameters

    keyPath

    The keyPath of a property whose minimum value is desired.

  • sum(of:) Extension method

    Returns the sum of the given property for objects in the collection, or nil if the collection is empty.

    Warning

    Only names of properties of a type conforming to the AddableType protocol can be used.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func sum<T>(of keyPath: KeyPath<Element, T>) -> T where T : _HasPersistedType, T.PersistedType : AddableType

    Parameters

    keyPath

    The keyPath of a property conforming to AddableType to calculate sum on.

  • average(of:) Extension method

    Returns the average value of a given property over all the objects in the collection, or nil if the collection is empty.

    Warning

    Only a property whose type conforms to the AddableType protocol can be specified.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func average<T>(of keyPath: KeyPath<Element, T>) -> T? where T : _HasPersistedType, T.PersistedType : AddableType

    Parameters

    keyPath

    The keyPath of a property whose values should be summed.

Available where Element.PersistedType: MinMaxType

  • min() Extension method

    Returns the minimum (lowest) value of the collection, or nil if the collection is empty.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func min() -> Element?
  • max() Extension method

    Returns the maximum (highest) value of the collection, or nil if the collection is empty.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func max() -> Element?

Available where Element.PersistedType: AddableType

  • sum() Extension method

    Returns the sum of the values in the collection, or nil if the collection is empty.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func sum() -> Element
  • average() Extension method

    Returns the average of all of the values in the collection.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func average<T>() -> T? where T : _HasPersistedType, T.PersistedType : AddableType

Available where Element: KeypathSortable

  • sorted(byKeyPath:ascending:) Extension method

    Returns a Results containing the objects in the collection, but sorted.

    Objects are sorted based on the values of the given key path. For example, to sort a collection of Students from youngest to oldest based on their age property, you might call students.sorted(byKeyPath: "age", ascending: true).

    Warning

    Collections may only be sorted by properties of boolean, Date, NSDate, single and double-precision floating point, integer, and string types.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func sorted(byKeyPath keyPath: String, ascending: Bool = true) -> Results<Element>

    Parameters

    keyPath

    The key path to sort by.

    ascending

    The direction to sort in.

  • sorted(by:ascending:) Extension method

    Returns a Results containing the objects in the collection, but sorted.

    Objects are sorted based on the values of the given key path. For example, to sort a collection of Students from youngest to oldest based on their age property, you might call students.sorted(byKeyPath: "age", ascending: true).

    Warning

    Collections may only be sorted by properties of boolean, Date, NSDate, single and double-precision floating point, integer, and string types.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func sorted<T>(by keyPath: KeyPath<Element, T>, ascending: Bool = true) -> Results<Element> where T : _HasPersistedType, Self.Element : RLMObjectBase, T.PersistedType : SortableType

    Parameters

    keyPath

    The key path to sort by.

    ascending

    The direction to sort in.

  • distinct(by:) Default implementation

    Default Implementation

    Returns a Results containing distinct objects based on the specified key paths

    Declaration

    Swift

    func distinct<S: Sequence>(by keyPaths: S) -> Results<Element>
        where S.Iterator.Element == PartialKeyPath<Element>, Element: ObjectBase

    Parameters

    keyPaths

    The key paths used produce distinct results

Available where Element.PersistedType: SortableType

  • sorted(ascending:) Extension method

    Returns a Results containing the objects in the collection, but sorted.

    Objects are sorted based on their values. For example, to sort a collection of Dates from neweset to oldest based, you might call dates.sorted(ascending: true).

    Declaration

    Swift

    func sorted(ascending: Bool = true) -> Results<Element>

    Parameters

    ascending

    The direction to sort in.

  • distinct() Extension method

    Returns a Results containing the distinct values in the collection.

    Declaration

    Swift

    func distinct() -> Results<Element>