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MongoDB & IIoT: Turning Data into Business Intelligence

Manufacturing companies leverage business intelligence (BI) to sift through and analyze manufacturing and supply chain data in order to become more efficient and productive organizations. Often, the real hurdle with analytics is ensuring reliable access to relevant data sets. This article describes how to prepare data to yield strategic and operational insights through a combination of data tiering, federation, querying, and visualization. Consider the scenario of a car manufacturer looking to implement a predictive maintenance program to reduce maintenance costs for its car assembly machines. Establishing an optimal data storage infrastructure is critical to allow them to find correlations between live IoT sensor data and historical maintenance records, thereby gaining insights into maintenance trends and correlating sensor data. As shown in Figure 1, such a challenge falls under step 3 of our IIoT end-to-end data integration framework: Compute. Figure 1: Step 3 in end-to-end data integration framework for IIoT. Read the first , second , and third articles in this series on end-to-end data integration in the context of IIoT. Figure 2: Architecture overview of data visualization and analytics enabled by MongoDB. The proposed methodology leverages the different data tiering capabilities of MongoDB covering the full data lifecycle to create a single API access for BI/analytics. Figure 2 summarizes the different MongoDB features and third-party integrations available to take advantage of the volumes of data generated over time for data-driven business insights. The challenge of data tiering The car manufacturer in our example would most likely need to differentiate between the different types of data needed for its predictive maintenance model. Here we make a distinction between operational and analytical workloads. Operational workload: Refers to latency-sensitive data that affects functioning of equipment or powers critical applications/processes. Analytical workload: Refers to life and historical data that does not power mission-critical applications but is readily stored and queried for the purpose of reporting, analytics, or training of AI/ML models. Figure 3 provides a basic illustration of how MongoDB handles workload isolation leveraging MongoDB replica sets to support real-time BI and analytical workloads without additional ETL jobs. Figure 3: Illustration of workload isolation in MongoDB. More advanced architecture patterns for workload isolation or data tiering can be achieved through sharding. Although these approaches are suitable for many scenarios, they are still more like hot/warm data because storage and compute are still tightly coupled. For maximum cost efficiency at the expense of latency, we must consider newer cloud storage options, such as Amazon S3 or other Blob stores, which decouple storage and compute and are perfectly suited to store so-called cold data. The challenge, however, is how to extract the data from hot stores (such as MongoDB), bring it into the cold storage (such as S3) while maintaining the ability to query the data through a single API. MongoDB provides several options to facilitate fully automated data tiering, including: Online Archive Atlas Data Lake Online Archive: Rule-based data archiving Online Archive in MongoDB Atlas provides an automated rule-based mechanism for moving data out of live/hot clusters to more cost-effective/cold storage (for example, Amazon S3 buckets). This feature removes the burden of building and maintaining potentially complex ETL jobs and data purging functionality while allowing users to configure data offloading within a few simple configuration steps. Online Archive moves data based on criteria specified in archival rules (as shown in Figure 4). In our example of an auto manufacturing company, sensor data is an excellent use case for this type of data tiering. Sensor data is “hot” when it's created and cools down over time with less need for real-time queries. Our car manufacturer can easily configure an archival rule dependent on the timestamp and in combination with the number of days they want to keep the data in the MongoDB cluster . Figure 4: Animation showing how Online Archive works. A broad set of MongoDB Atlas customers across industries already uses Online Archive to save storage costs while maintaining query ability across hot and cold data. With Online Archive, we were able to save an astounding 60% in data storage costs and 70% in cloud backup costs — reducing our overall database spend by 35%. Martin Löper, Cloud Solutions Architect, Nesto Software Although offloading data already provides major cost savings, there is also potential for more efficient data processing on the consumer side by optimizing the data structures and file formats toward more column-oriented analytical queries. For this purpose, MongoDB has recently released a Data Lake feature set (currently in Preview) that allows users to take advantage of new features such as columnar indexing and an optimized analytical file format. Data Lake: Columnar indexing of database snapshots Data Lake is MongoDB’s offering of a fully managed analytical storage solution that provides the economics of cloud object storage and is optimized for high-performing analytical queries. It works by reformatting data from a backup snapshot of the Atlas cluster and creating partitioned indexes (illustrated in Figure 5). Figure 5: Diagram showing how Data Lake works. Fully integrated as part of MongoDB Atlas, Atlas Data Lake is provisioned alongside Atlas clusters with no infrastructure to set up or manage, and no storage capacity to predict, making the user experience, administration, and support easy. Returning to our example of predictive maintenance model development, performing columnar indexing on the collected data will result in high gains for analytical query performance. Data Federation: Data virtualization made simple Rarely do business analysts have all the required data in the same place. Often, it’s distributed among different domains and data stores as well as in different formats, like JSON, tabular, CSV, Parquet, Avro, and others. This leads to quite a complex landscape with different API languages, which makes it hard to get easy access to data across all these sources. That's where MongoDB's Atlas Data Federation comes in. Data Federation allows bridging of these data silos by consolidating all the discussed data sources behind a single API without the need for data duplication (Figure 6). Users can group different data sources to virtual databases and collections and query the data with MQL or SQL across the various sources just like talking to a single DBMS. This approach reduces the effort, time-sink, and complexity of pipelines and ETL tools when working with data in different formats. It also allows users to seamlessly query, transform, and aggregate data from one or more data stores (i.e., Atlas cluster, Atlas Data Lake, Amazon S3 buckets, Online Archive, and HTTP endpoints) to create a single virtual database using the full power of the aggregation pipeline (Figure 7). Figure 6: Diagram showing how Data Federation works in MongoDB Atlas. Figure 7: Creating a virtual database in the MongoDB Atlas GUI. Please refer to the documentation for a more detailed description of the process of creating a Federated Database Instance in MongoDB Atlas. Data Federation endpoints are not just read-only APIs. Results of querying a federated database instance can be stored back in MongoDB clusters or as files in S3 buckets to power other real-time enterprise or end-user applications, or for performing other analytical tasks and visualizations. In the case of our car manufacturer, real-time sensor data and maintenance history can be queried together and made available to an analytical engine training ML models for remaining useful life prediction. The fastest way to start building compelling visualizations and gaining insight into the data across MongoDB clusters and file-based data sources through federated instances is through the use of Charts , which comes fully integrated in the Atlas product suite. Data visualization with Charts Charts provides a quick, simple, and yet powerful way to visualize data with multiple widgets, dynamic filters, and automatic data refresh like you know it from traditional BI tools. Atlas users can connect dashboards created in Atlas Charts with federated databases and perform correlation analytics in a no-code environment. Charts is fully integrated with the MongoDB Atlas product suite, which means that data sources in Atlas are immediately accessible from the interface, allowing users to add federated databases as a source for a variety of dashboard visualizations. From displaying device sensor data to calculated values for more sophisticated insights, Charts provides widgets and custom fields calculations to achieve effective and insightful visualizations. Figures 8 and 9 show two examples of dashboards created in Charts showing time series sensor data from a smart factory and Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) along with other manufacturing performance metrics information. Through the use of these powerful visualizations, the car manufacturer can understand the effect of optimal maintenance strategies on overall factory performance. Figure 8: Sample shop floor monitoring dashboard created in Atlas Charts. Figure 9: Sample OEE dashboard in Atlas Charts To harness existing knowledge and skills around familiar and popular BI tools such as Power BI and Tableau, MongoDB has developed Atlas SQL API , which gives users the option to connect SQL-based business intelligence and analytics tools to Atlas through a variety of drivers and connectors including: Tableau Connector Power BI Connector JDBC Driver ODBC Driver These Atlas SQL connectors and drivers leverage Data Federation functionality, thereby enabling users to query data across Atlas clusters and cloud storage (such as S3 buckets) and to maintain the comfort of existing SQL-based BI tools that they are familiar with. Getting started is easy using the Atlas SQL API at no cost with the detailed tutorial and the documentation . Register for a free Atlas user account to try it out. Watch our recorded webinar to see a live demonstration of how Atlas Federated Instances are created and used as a data source for MongoDB Charts and Tableau.

October 27, 2022

MongoDB and IIoT: Data Streaming With Kafka

Event streaming has become a cornerstone of the industrial internet of things (IIoT) because it allows people to unleash the power of real-time operational data to drive applications and analytics. In this article, we share how MongoDB Atlas helps you move data seamlessly from the MQTT protocol into MongoDB time series collections using the Apache Kafka MQTT source and MongoDB sink connectors deployed in a cloud environment. Read the first and second articles in this four-part series on MongoDB and IIoT. Data streaming is the second step in our framework for end-to-end data integration in the manufacturing sector. The “connect” step of this framework deals with establishing an interface for interaction with IoT devices . The methodology discussed in this blog was developed and tested using a model factory created by Fischertechnik , but these steps are applicable to any environment that uses the standard MQTT protocol. All the source code for this project, along with a detailed deployment guide, can be found on our public Github repository. Figure 1. &nbsp;Step 2 of the end-to-end data integration framework. The challenge of collecting data On the shop floor, devices and components are continuously generating data related to their activity and environmental conditions at regular time intervals, typically known as time series data. In our factory model production line, there are a variety of sensors collecting data about temperature, pressure, humidity, brightness, camera positions, device/inventory status, and movements. This data is vital to monitor the health and effectiveness of factory equipment and its ability to continue to function without failure. The resulting datasets are often huge and must be efficiently stored and analyzed to detect anomalies or provide insight into overall equipment efficiency. With the advent of powerful event streaming platforms like Apache Kafka — and the wide variety of connectors for all sorts of protocols — it has become increasingly simple to handle the consolidation and export of real-time data feeds. However, dealing with such large volumes of data comes with added challenges regarding scalable storage, cost implications, and data archiving. This is where MongoDB’s time series collections come into play. Time series collections are a distinct type of MongoDB collections, optimized to efficiently store and process time series data by leveraging clustered indexes, columnar compression, and aggregation pipeline stages to facilitate real-time analytics. Learn more about time series collections on our tutorial page . Dream team: MQTT + Kafka + MongoDB Our recipe for collecting real-time sensor data (using the MQTT protocol) combines an MQTT source connector developed by Confluent and a native MongoDB sink connector deployed in a containerized environment. Figure 2. &nbsp;The components of the data streaming methodology. In this instance, we used a similar stack that includes Kafka Connect , a Kafka broker, and ZooKeeper deployed as containers in a single Docker compose file. This setup can be deployed locally, on a serverless backend or even Confluent Cloud. In our case, we have it deployed on an AWS EC2 Linux instance. Read our tutorial on how to set up a Kafka development environment with MongoDB connectors . Here’s a brief explanation of what each container does in this environment: Zookeeper: Acts a centralized controller that manages and organizes all the Kafka brokers. Kafka broker: Allows Kafka consumers to fetch messages by topic, partition, and offset. Kafka brokers can create a Kafka cluster by sharing information between each other. Kafka Connect: Serves as the runtime environment where you can configure connectors to ingest data into Kafka topics, making the data available for stream processing with low latency. It is worth noting that Kafka allows any number of sink and source connectors to be created in its environment as long as there are no server resource restrictions. Once the development environment is set up, all the necessary parameters are configured in the source and sink connectors. The source connector The source connector allows the Kafka broker to subscribe to MQTT topics. It serves to map the MQTT topics that contain the desired data parameters to a chosen Kafka topic. For simplicity, we’ve used Confluent’s MQTT source connector , which supports any kind of MQTT broker connection (self-hosted or otherwise). We’ve also used a managed MQTT service from HiveMQ as our remote broker. In the sample source connector configuration below, we’ve streamed sensor readings from multiple MQTT topics on the factory to a single Kafka topic called sensors using a string list of MQTT topics. We added the necessary access details to the remote broker from which Kafka will consume messages from the MQTT topic and save them as JSON values. Mapping several MQTT topics to the same Kafka topic does not affect the performance of the connector. { "name": "mqtt-source", "config": { "connector.class": "io.confluent.connect.mqtt.MqttSourceConnector", "tasks.max": "1", "mqtt.server.uri": "ssl://<REMOTE BROKER ADDRESS>:8883", "mqtt.username": "<REMOTE BROKER CLIENT>", "mqtt.password": "<REMOTE BROKER CLIENT PASSWORD>", "mqtt.topics": "i/ldr,i/bme680,i/cam", "kafka.topic": "sensors", "value.converter":"org.apache.kafka.connect.converters.ByteArrayConverter", "confluent.topic.bootstrap.servers": "broker:9092", "confluent.license": "", "topic.creation.enable": true, "topic.creation.default.replication.factor": -1, "topic.creation.default.partitions": -1 }} Figure 3. &nbsp;Sensor readings from multiple MQTT topics to a single Kafka topic. The sink connector While the source connector specifies the location from which data is retrieved, the sink connector specifies the destination to which data is sent. We used the MongoDB Kafka Sink Connector , which allowed us to connect to a MongoDB Atlas cluster with the right access information and choose which database and collection the streaming data was stored in. To receive the brightness readings captured in the source connector, the topics property in this connector must be set to match the name of the kafka.topic property in the former. { "name": "mongodb-sink", "config": { "connector.class":"com.mongodb.kafka.connect.MongoSinkConnector", "tasks.max":1, "topics":"sensors", "connection.uri":"mongodb+srv://user:password@address.mongodb.net/database?retryWrites=true&w=majority", "database":"<database name>", "collection":"<collection name>", "key.converter":"org.apache.kafka.connect.storage.StringConverter", "value.converter":"org.apache.kafka.connect.json.JsonConverter", "value.converter.schemas.enable":"false", "timeseries.timefield":"ts", "timeseries.timefield.auto.convert":"true", "timeseries.timefield.auto.convert.date.format":"yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss'Z'", "transforms": "RenameField,InsertTopic", "transforms.RenameField.type": "org.apache.kafka.connect.transforms.ReplaceField$Value", "transforms.RenameField.renames": "h:humidity, p:pressure, t:temperature”, "transforms.InsertTopic.type":"org.apache.kafka.connect.transforms.InsertField$Value", "transforms.InsertTopic.topic.field":"Source" }} Figure 4. &nbsp; The converter properties instruct the connector on how to translate data from Kafka. The converter properties in Figure 4 instruct the connector on how to translate data from Kafka. This configuration also automatically creates a time series collection in the requested database using the timeseries.timefield properties, which allowed us to choose which field in the original MQTT message qualifies as the timestamp and auto-convert that to a MongoDB-compatible date/time value format. Find out more about the configurable properties of our Kafka connectors in our detailed documentation . Smooth sailing with MongoDB Atlas Once the connectors have been configured and launched, Kafka listens on the mapped topics for any change events and translates this to documents in a time series collection. As long as the Kafka environment is running and connection with the MQTT broker remains unbroken, the time series collection is updated in real time and highly compressed (often more than 90%) to accommodate the continuous influx of data. See a sample of the time series collection we created in Figure 5. Figure 5. &nbsp; Streamed data saved in a MongoDB Atlas time series collection. As the expectations of consumability vary across organizations and personas, the underlying data structure can be further tailored for different use cases by using materialized views and simple aggregations. Read the first and second articles in this four-part series on MongoDB and IIoT. Since time series data is hardly ever changed and “cools down” over time, storing it in a hot data tier can become costly. To optimize costs, MongoDB Atlas provides Online Archive , which allows you to configure filter criteria to trigger automatic offloading of “cold” data to cheaper storage while maintaining its queryability. Once you start to receive accurate real-time data from the factory floor, a world of opportunity opens up in terms of getting insights from the collected data. In our next post, we will show you how to leverage the rest of the MongoDB Atlas product suite to run analytics on operational data, including using Atlas Charts for instant seamless data visualizations (see Figure 6). Figure 6. &nbsp; A sample dashboard created from factory sensor data in Atlas Charts. All the source code used in this project, along with a detailed deployment guide, is available on our public Github repo . Feel free to clone it and play around with configuring Kafka and its connectors. Most of the principles discussed in this post are applicable to any device that uses MQTT as a communication protocol. To learn more, watch our webinar session to see the full reference architecture, get tips for configuring your Kafka connectors, and see a live demonstration. If you have questions about other communication protocols or would like to consult with someone from our team about your project, please contact us . Read Part 2 of this series on a 4-Step Data Integration .

August 10, 2022

MongoDB & IIoT: A 4-Step Data Integration

The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is driving a new era of manufacturing, unlocking powerful new use cases to forge new revenue streams, create holistic business insights, and provide agility based on global and consumer demands. In Part 1 of this series, “ Manufacturing at Scale: MongoDB & IIoT ,” we gave an overview of the adoption and implementation of IIoT in manufacturing processes, testing various use cases with a model-size smart factory (Figure 1). In this post, we’ll look at how MongoDB’s flexible, highly available, and scalable data platform allows for end-to-end data integration using a four-step framework. Figure 1: Architecture diagram of MongoDB's platform with MQTT-enabled devices. 4-step framework for end-to-end data integration The four stages of this framework (Figure 2) are: Connect: Establish an interface to “listen” and “talk” to the device(s). Collect: Gather and store data from devices in an efficient and reliable manner. Compute: Process and analyze data generated by IoT devices. Create: Create unique solutions (or applications) through access to transformational data. Figure 2: The four-step framework for shop floor data integration During the course of this series, we will explore each of the four steps in detail, covering the tools and methodology and providing a walkthrough of our implementation process, using the Fischertechnik model as a basis for testing and development. All of the steps, however, are applicable to any environment that uses a Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) API. The first step of the process is Connect. The first step: Connect The model factory contains a variety of sensors that are generating data on everything from the camera angle to the air quality and temperature — all in real time. The factory uses the MQTT protocol to send and receive input, output, and status messages related to the different factory components. You may wonder why we don’t immediately jump to the data collection stage. The reason is simple; we must first be able to “see” all of the data coming from the factory, which will allow us to select the metrics we are interested in capturing and configure our database appropriately. As a quick refresher on the architecture diagram of the factory, we see in Figure 3 that any messages transmitted in or out of the factory are routed through the Remote MQTT Broker. The challenge is to successfully read and write messages to and from the factory, respectively. Figure 3: Architecture diagram of the model smart factory It is important to remember that the method of making this connection between the devices and MongoDB depends on the communication protocols the device is equipped with. On the shop floor, multiple protocols are used for device communication, such as MQTT and OPC-UA, which may require different connector technologies, such as Kafka, among other off-the-shelf IoT connectors. In most scenarios, MongoDB can be integrated easily, regardless of the communication protocol, by adding the appropriate connector configuration. (We will discuss more about that implementation in our next blog post.) For this specific scenario, we will focus on MQTT. Figure 4 shows a simplified version of our connection diagram. Figure 4: Connecting the factory's data to MongoDB Atlas and Realm Because the available communication protocol for the factory is MQTT, we will do the following: Set up a remote MQTT broker and test its connectivity. Create an MQTT bridge. Send MQTT messages to the device(s). Note that these steps can be applied to any devices, machinery, or environment that come equipped with MQTT, so you can adapt this methodology to your specific project. Let’s get started. 1. Set up a remote MQTT broker To focus on the connection of the brokers, we used a managed service from HiveMQ to create a broker and the necessary hosting environment. However, this setup would work just as well with any self-managed MQTT broker. HiveMQ Cloud has a free tier, which is a great option for practice and for testing the desired configuration. You can create an account to set up a free cluster and add users to it. These users will function as clients of the remote broker. We recommend using different users for different purposes. Test the remote broker connectivity We used the Mosquitto CLI client to directly access the broker(s) from the command line. Then, we connected to the same network used by the factory, opened a terminal window, and started a listener on the local TXT broker using this command: mosquito_sub -h 192.168.0.10 -p 1883 -u txt -P xtx -t f/o/# Next, in a new terminal window, we published a message to the remote broker on the same topic as the listener. A complete list of all topics configured on the factory can be found in the Fischertechnik documentation . You can fill in the command below with the information of your remote broker. mosquitto_pub -h <hivemq-cloud-host-address> -p 8883 -u <hivemq-client-username> -P <hivemq-client-password> -t f/o/# -m "Hello" If the bridge has been configured correctly, you will see the message “Hello” displayed on the first terminal window that contains your local broker listener. Now we get to the good part. We want to see all the messages that the factory is generating for all of the topics. Because we are a bit more familiar with the Mosquitto CLI, we started a listener on the local TXT broker using this command: mosquitto_sub -h 192.168.0.10 -p 1883 -u txt -P xtx -t # Where the topic “#” essentially means “everything.” And just like that, we can get a sense of which parameters we can hope to extract from the factory into our database. As an added bonus, the data is already in JSON. This will simplify the process of streaming the data into MongoDB Atlas once we reach the data collection stage, because MongoDB runs on the document model , which is also JSON-based. The following screen recording shows the data stream that results from starting a listener on all topics to which the devices publish while running. You will notice giant blocks of data, which are the encoding of the factory camera images taken every second, as well as other metrics, such as stock item positions in the warehouse and temperature sensor data, all of which is sent at regular time intervals. This is a prime example of time series data, which we will describe how to store and process in a future article. Video: Results of viewing all device messages on all topics 2. Create a MQTT bridge An MQTT bridge (Figure 5) is a uni/bi-directional binding of topics between two MQTT brokers, such that messages published to one broker are relayed seamlessly to clients subscribed to that same topic on the other broker. Figure 5: Message relays between MQTT brokers In our case, the MQTT broker on the main controller is configured to forward/receive messages to/from the remote MQTT broker via the following MQTT bridge configuration: connection remote-broker address <YOUR REMOTE MQTT BROKER IP ADDRESS:PORT> bridge_capath /etc/ssl/certs notifications false cleansession true remote_username <HIVEMQ CLIENT USERNAME> remote_password <HIVEMQ CLIENT PASSWORD> local_username txt local_password xtx topic i/# out 1 "" "" topic o/# in 1 "" "" topic c/# out 1 "" "" topic f/i/# out 1 "" "" topic f/o/# in 1 "" "" try_private false bridge_attempt_unsubscribe false This configuration file is created and loaded directly into the factory broker via SSH. 3. Send MQTT messages to the device(s) We can test our bridge configuration by sending a meaningful MQTT message to the factory through the HiveMQ websocket client (Figure 6). We signed into the console with one of the users (clients) previously created and sent an order message to the “f/o/order” topic used in the previous step. Figure 6: Sending a test message using the bridged broker The format for the order message is: {"type":"WHITE","ts":"2022-03-23T13:54:02.085Z"} “Type” refers to the color of the workpiece to order. We have a choice of three workpiece colors: RED, WHITE, BLUE; “ts” refers to the timestamp of when the message is published. This determines its place in the message queue and when the order process will actually be started. Once the bridge is configured correctly, the factory will start to process the order according to the workpiece color specified in the message. Thanks for sticking with us through to the end of this process. We hope this methodology provides fresh insight for your IoT projects. Find a detailed tutorial and all the source code for this project on GitHub. Read Part 1 of this series on manufacturing and IIoT .

May 20, 2022