I said this in the SO question but I can elaborate here: all three of your points are NOT inside this polygon. The query correctly returns the point that’s not inside.
It would be easier to visualize by plotting the smaller rectangle on the globe - I did it on Google Earth, and I think it would be easier to see that two of your points (the two somewhere near Thailand?) are inside of this polygon but the one in South of France is outside of it.
Your three points:
The smaller polygon projected onto Google Earth:
Two of your points are right in the middle of this picture, putting them inside the clockwise polygon, therefore they would be outside the counterclockwise (big) polygon, but the third point would not be.