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Aggregation Pipeline

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  • Complete Aggregation Pipeline Examples
  • Additional Aggregation Pipeline Stage Details
  • Aggregation Pipeline Expressions
  • Run an Aggregation Pipeline
  • Update Documents Using an Aggregation Pipeline
  • Other Considerations
  • Learn More

An aggregation pipeline consists of one or more stages that process documents:

  • Each stage performs an operation on the input documents. For example, a stage can filter documents, group documents, and calculate values.

  • The documents that are output from a stage are passed to the next stage.

  • An aggregation pipeline can return results for groups of documents. For example, return the total, average, maximum, and minimum values.

Starting in MongoDB 4.2, you can update documents with an aggregation pipeline if you use the stages shown in Updates with Aggregation Pipeline.

Note

This section shows aggregation pipeline examples that use the following pizza orders collection:

db.orders.insertMany( [
{ _id: 0, name: "Pepperoni", size: "small", price: 19,
quantity: 10, date: ISODate( "2021-03-13T08:14:30Z" ) },
{ _id: 1, name: "Pepperoni", size: "medium", price: 20,
quantity: 20, date : ISODate( "2021-03-13T09:13:24Z" ) },
{ _id: 2, name: "Pepperoni", size: "large", price: 21,
quantity: 30, date : ISODate( "2021-03-17T09:22:12Z" ) },
{ _id: 3, name: "Cheese", size: "small", price: 12,
quantity: 15, date : ISODate( "2021-03-13T11:21:39.736Z" ) },
{ _id: 4, name: "Cheese", size: "medium", price: 13,
quantity:50, date : ISODate( "2022-01-12T21:23:13.331Z" ) },
{ _id: 5, name: "Cheese", size: "large", price: 14,
quantity: 10, date : ISODate( "2022-01-12T05:08:13Z" ) },
{ _id: 6, name: "Vegan", size: "small", price: 17,
quantity: 10, date : ISODate( "2021-01-13T05:08:13Z" ) },
{ _id: 7, name: "Vegan", size: "medium", price: 18,
quantity: 10, date : ISODate( "2021-01-13T05:10:13Z" ) }
] )

The following aggregation pipeline example contains two stages and returns the total order quantity of medium size pizzas grouped by pizza name:

db.orders.aggregate( [
// Stage 1: Filter pizza order documents by pizza size
{
$match: { size: "medium" }
},
// Stage 2: Group remaining documents by pizza name and calculate total quantity
{
$group: { _id: "$name", totalQuantity: { $sum: "$quantity" } }
}
] )

The $match stage:

  • Filters the pizza order documents to pizzas with a size of medium.

  • Passes the remaining documents to the $group stage.

The $group stage:

  • Groups the remaining documents by pizza name.

  • Uses $sum to calculate the total order quantity for each pizza name. The total is stored in the totalQuantity field returned by the aggregation pipeline.

Example output:

[
{ _id: 'Cheese', totalQuantity: 50 },
{ _id: 'Vegan', totalQuantity: 10 },
{ _id: 'Pepperoni', totalQuantity: 20 }
]

The following example calculates the total pizza order value and average order quantity between two dates:

db.orders.aggregate( [
// Stage 1: Filter pizza order documents by date range
{
$match:
{
"date": { $gte: new ISODate( "2020-01-30" ), $lt: new ISODate( "2022-01-30" ) }
}
},
// Stage 2: Group remaining documents by date and calculate results
{
$group:
{
_id: { $dateToString: { format: "%Y-%m-%d", date: "$date" } },
totalOrderValue: { $sum: { $multiply: [ "$price", "$quantity" ] } },
averageOrderQuantity: { $avg: "$quantity" }
}
},
// Stage 3: Sort documents by totalOrderValue in descending order
{
$sort: { totalOrderValue: -1 }
}
] )

The $match stage:

  • Filters the pizza order documents to those in a date range specified using $gte and $lt.

  • Passes the remaining documents to the $group stage.

The $group stage:

  • Groups the documents by date using $dateToString.

  • For each group, calculates:

  • Passes the grouped documents to the $sort stage.

The $sort stage:

  • Sorts the documents by the total order value for each group in descending order (-1).

  • Returns the sorted documents.

Example output:

[
{ _id: '2022-01-12', totalOrderValue: 790, averageOrderQuantity: 30 },
{ _id: '2021-03-13', totalOrderValue: 770, averageOrderQuantity: 15 },
{ _id: '2021-03-17', totalOrderValue: 630, averageOrderQuantity: 30 },
{ _id: '2021-01-13', totalOrderValue: 350, averageOrderQuantity: 10 }
]

Tip

See also:

An aggregation pipeline consists of one or more stages that process documents:

  • A stage does not have to output one document for every input document. For example, some stages may produce new documents or filter out documents.

  • The same stage can appear multiple times in the pipeline with these stage exceptions: $out, $merge, and $geoNear.

  • To calculate averages and perform other calculations in a stage, use aggregation expressions that specify aggregation operators. You will learn more about aggregation expressions in the next section.

For all aggregation stages, see Aggregation Pipeline Stages.

Some aggregation pipeline stages accept an aggregation expression, which:

Starting in MongoDB 4.4, you can use the $accumulator and $function aggregation operators to define custom aggregation expressions in JavaScript.

For all aggregation expressions, see Expressions.

To run an aggregation pipeline, use:

To update documents with an aggregation pipeline, use:

Command
mongosh Methods

An aggregation pipeline has limitations on the value types and the result size. See Aggregation Pipeline Limits.

An aggregation pipeline supports operations on sharded collections. See Aggregation Pipeline and Sharded Collections.

Starting in MongoDB 5.0, map-reduce is deprecated:

  • Instead of map-reduce, you should use an aggregation pipeline. Aggregation pipelines provide better performance and usability than map-reduce.

  • You can rewrite map-reduce operations using aggregation pipeline stages, such as $group, $merge, and others.

  • For map-reduce operations that require custom functionality, you can use the $accumulator and $function aggregation operators, available starting in version 4.4. You can use those operators to define custom aggregation expressions in JavaScript.

For examples of aggregation pipeline alternatives to map-reduce, see:

To learn more about aggregation pipelines, see:

←  Aggregation OperationsAggregation Pipeline Optimization →
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