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Secure Internal Authentication with X.509

This guide instructs you on how to configure:

  • X.509 internal authentication between MongoDB nodes in a cluster.
  • X.509 authentication from clients to your MongoDB instances.

The Kubernetes Operator doesn’t support other authentication schemes between MongoDB nodes in a cluster.

Note

You can’t secure a Standalone Instance of MongoDB in a Kubernetes cluster.

General Prerequisites

Before you secure any of your MongoDB deployments using TLS encryption, complete the following:

Enabling X.509 authentication at the project level configures all agents to use X.509 client authentication when communicating with MongoDB deployments.

X.509 client authentication requires one of the following:

  • Cloud Manager
  • Ops Manager 4.1.7 or later
  • Ops Manager 4.0.11 or later

Configure X.509 Internal Authentication for a Replica Set

Prerequisites

Before you secure your replica set using X.509, deploy a TLS-encrypted replica set.

Enable X.509 Internal Authentication

1

Create the secret for your X.509 certificate.

Run this kubectl command to create a new secret that stores the replica set’s certificate:

kubectl create secret tls <prefix>-<metadata.name>-clusterfile \
  --cert=<replica-set-clusterfile-tls-cert> \
  --key=<replica-set-clusterfile-tls-key>

Note

You must prefix your secrets with <prefix>-<metadata.name>.

Example

If you call your deployment my-deployment and you set the prefix to mdb, you must name the TLS secret for the client TLS communications mdb-my-deployment-cert. Also, you must name the TLS secret for internal cluster authentication (if enabled) mdb-my-deployment-clusterfile.

2

Copy the sample replica set resource.

Change the settings of this YAML file to match your desired replica set configuration.

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---
apiVersion: mongodb.com/v1
kind: MongoDB
metadata:
  name: <my-replica-set>
spec:
  members: 3
  version: "4.2.2-ent"
  opsManager:
    configMapRef:
      name: <configMap.metadata.name>
            # Must match metadata.name in ConfigMap file
  credentials: <mycredentials>
  type: ReplicaSet
  persistent: true
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  security:
    tls:
      ca: <custom-ca>
    certsSecretPrefix: <prefix>
    authentication:
      enabled: true
      modes: ["X509"]
      internalCluster: "X509"
...
3

Paste the copied example section into your existing replica set resource.

Open your preferred text editor and paste the object specification at the end of your resource file in the spec section.

4

Configure the general X.509 settings for your replica set resource.

To enable TLS and X.509 in your deployment, configure the following settings in your Kubernetes object:

Key Type Necessity Description Example
spec.security
.authentication
boolean Required Set this value to true to enable authentication on the MongoDB deployment. true
spec.security
.authentication
array Conditional Set this value to ["X509"]. ["X509"]
5

Configure the internal X.509 settings for your replica set resource.

To enable TLS and X.509 in your deployment, configure the following settings in your Kubernetes object:

Key Type Necessity Description Example
spec.security
.authentication
string Required

Use this setting to enable X.509 internal cluster authentication.

Important

Once internal cluster authentication is enabled, it can’t be disabled.

X509
6

Save your replica set config file.

7

Apply your changes to your replica set deployment.

Invoke the following Kubernetes command to update your replica set:

kubectl apply -f <replica-set-conf>.yaml
8

Track the status of your deployment.

To check the status of your MongoDB Kubernetes resource, invoke the following command:

kubectl get mdb <resource-name> -o yaml -w

The -w flag means “watch”. With the “watch” flag set, the output refreshes immediately when the configuration changes until the status phase achieves the Running state.

See Troubleshoot the Kubernetes Operator for information about the resource deployment statuses.

Renew Internal Authentication X.509 Certificates for a Replica Set

If you have already created certificates, we recommend that you renew them periodically using the following procedure.

1

Configure kubectl to default to your namespace.

If you have not already, run the following command to execute all kubectl commands in the namespace you created:

kubectl config set-context $(kubectl config current-context) --namespace=<metadata.namespace>
2

Renew the secret for your TLS certificates.

Run this kubectl command to renew an existing secret that stores the replica set’s certificates:

kubectl create secret tls <prefix>-<metadata.name>-cert \
  --cert=<replica-set-tls-cert> \
  --key=<replica-set-tls-key> \
  --dry-run=client \
   -o yaml |
kubectl apply -f -
3

Renew the secret for your X.509 certificate.

Run this kubectl command to renew an existing secret that stores the replica set’s certificate:

kubectl create secret tls <prefix>-<metadata.name>-clusterfile \
  --cert=<replica-set-clusterfile-tls-cert> \
  --key=<replica-set-clusterfile-tls-key> \
  --dry-run=client \
   -o yaml |
kubectl apply -f -
4

Renew the secret for your agents’ X.509 certificates.

Run this kubectl command to renew an existing secret that stores the agents’ X.509 certificates:

kubectl create secret tls <prefix>-<metadata.name>-agent-certs \
  --cert=<agent-tls-cert> \
  --key=<agent-tls-key> \
  --dry-run=client \
   -o yaml |
kubectl apply -f -

Configure X.509 Internal Authentication for a Sharded Cluster

Prerequisites

Before you secure your sharded cluster using X.509, deploy a TLS-encrypted sharded cluster.

Enable X.509 Internal Authentication

1

Create the secret for your Shards’ X.509 certificates.

Run this kubectl command to create a new secret that stores the sharded cluster shards’ certificates:

kubectl -n mongodb create secret tls <prefix>-<metadata.name>-0-clusterfile \
  --cert=<shard-0-clusterfile-tls-cert> \
  --key=<shard-0-clusterfile-tls-cert>

kubectl -n mongodb create secret tls <prefix>-<metadata.name>-1-clusterfile \
  --cert=<shard-1-clusterfile-tls-cert> \
  --key=<shard-1-clusterfile-tls-cert>
2

Create the secret for your config servers’ X.509 certificate.

Run this kubectl command to create a new secret that stores the sharded cluster config server’s certificates:

kubectl -n mongodb create secret tls <prefix>-<metadata.name>-config-clusterfile \
  --cert=<config-clusterfile-tls-cert> \
  --key=<config-clusterfile-tls-cert>
3

Create the secret for your mongos server’s X.509 certificates.

Run this kubectl command to create a new secret that stores the sharded cluster mongos certificates:

kubectl -n mongodb create secret tls <prefix>-<metadata.name>-mongos-clusterfile \
  --cert=<mongos-clusterfile-tls-cert> \
  --key=<mongos-clusterfile-tls-cert>
4

Copy the sample sharded cluster resource.

Change the settings of this YAML file to match your desired sharded cluster configuration.

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---
apiVersion: mongodb.com/v1
kind: MongoDB
metadata:
  name: <my-sharded-cluster>
spec:
  shardCount: 2
  mongodsPerShardCount: 3
  mongosCount: 2
  configServerCount: 3
  version: "4.2.2-ent"
  opsManager:
    configMapRef:
      name: <configMap.metadata.name>
            # Must match metadata.name in ConfigMap file
  credentials: <mycredentials>
  type: ShardedCluster
  persistent: true
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  security:
    tls:
      ca: <custom-ca>
    certsSecretPrefix: <prefix>
    authentication:
      enabled: true
      modes: ["X509"]
      internalCluster: "X509"
...
5

Paste the copied example section into your existing sharded cluster resource.

Open your preferred text editor and paste the object specification at the end of your resource file in the spec section.

6

Configure the general X.509 settings for your sharded cluster resource.

To enable TLS and X.509 in your deployment, configure the following settings in your Kubernetes object:

Key Type Necessity Description Example
spec.security
.authentication
boolean Required Set this value to true to enable authentication on the MongoDB deployment. true
spec.security
.authentication
array Conditional Set this value to ["X509"]. ["X509"]
7

Configure the internal X.509 settings for your sharded cluster resource.

To enable TLS and X.509 in your deployment, configure the following settings in your Kubernetes object:

Key Type Necessity Description Example
spec.security
.authentication
string Required

Use this setting to enable X.509 internal cluster authentication.

Important

Once internal cluster authentication is enabled, it can’t be disabled.

X509
8

Save your sharded cluster config file.

9

Update and restart your sharded cluster deployment.

In any directory, invoke the following Kubernetes command to update and restart your {k8sResource}}:

kubectl apply -f <sharded-cluster-conf>.yaml
10

Track the status of your deployment.

To check the status of your MongoDB Kubernetes resource, invoke the following command:

kubectl get mdb <resource-name> -o yaml -w

The -w flag means “watch”. With the “watch” flag set, the output refreshes immediately when the configuration changes until the status phase achieves the Running state.

See Troubleshoot the Kubernetes Operator for information about the resource deployment statuses.

Renew Internal Authentication X.509 Certificates for a Sharded Cluster

If you have already created certificates, we recommend that you renew them periodically using the following procedure.

1

Configure kubectl to default to your namespace.

If you have not already, run the following command to execute all kubectl commands in the namespace you created:

kubectl config set-context $(kubectl config current-context) --namespace=<metadata.namespace>
2

Renew the secret for your Shards’ TLS certificates.

Run this kubectl command to renew an existing secret that stores the sharded cluster shards’ certificates:

kubectl -n mongodb create secret tls <prefix>-<metadata.name>-0-cert \
  --cert=<shard-0-tls-cert> \
  --key=<shard-0-tls-key> \
  --dry-run=client \
  -o yaml |
kubectl apply -f -

kubectl -n mongodb create secret tls <prefix>-<metadata.name>-1-cert \
  --cert=<shard-1-tls-cert> \
  --key=<shard-1-tls-key> \
  --dry-run=client \
  -o yaml |
kubectl apply -f -
3

Renew the secret for your config server’s TLS certificates.

Run this kubectl command to renew an existing secret that stores the sharded cluster config server’s certificates:

kubectl -n mongodb create secret tls <prefix>-<metadata.name>-config-cert \
  --cert=<config-tls-cert> \
  --key=<config-tls-key> \
  --dry-run=client \
  -o yaml |
kubectl apply -f -
4

Renew the secret for your mongos server’s TLS certificates.

Run this kubectl command to renew an existing secret that stores the sharded cluster mongos certificates:

kubectl -n mongodb create secret tls <prefix>-<metadata.name>-mongos-cert \
  --cert=<mongos-tls-cert> \
  --key=<mongos-tls-key> \
  --dry-run=client \
  -o yaml |
kubectl apply -f -
5

Renew the secret for your Shards’ X.509 certificates.

Run this kubectl command to renew an existing secret that stores the sharded cluster shards’ certificates:

kubectl -n mongodb create secret tls <prefix>-<metadata.name>-0-clusterfile \
  --cert=<shard-0-clusterfile-tls-cert> \
  --key=<shard-0-clusterfile-tls-cert> \
  --dry-run=client \
  -o yaml |
kubectl apply -f -

kubectl -n mongodb create secret tls <prefix>-<metadata.name>-1-clusterfile \
  --cert=<shard-1-clusterfile-tls-cert> \
  --key=<shard-1-clusterfile-tls-cert> \
  --dry-run=client \
  -o yaml |
kubectl apply -f -
6

Renew the secret for your config servers’ X.509 certificate.

Run this kubectl command to renew an existing secret that stores the sharded cluster config servers’ certificate:

kubectl -n mongodb create secret tls <prefix>-<metadata.name>-config-clusterfile \
  --cert=<config-clusterfile-tls-cert> \
  --key=<config-clusterfile-tls-cert> \
  --dry-run=client \
  -o yaml |
kubectl apply -f -
7

Renew the secret for your mongos server’s X.509 certificates.

Run this kubectl command to renew an existing secret that stores the sharded cluster mongos certificates:

kubectl -n mongodb create secret tls <prefix>-<metadata.name>-mongos-clusterfile \
  --cert=<mongos-clusterfile-tls-cert> \
  --key=<mongos-clusterfile-tls-cert> \
  --dry-run=client \
  -o yaml |
kubectl apply -f -
8

Renew the secret for your agents’ X.509 certificates.

Run this kubectl command to renew an existing secret that stores the agents’ X.509 certificates:

kubectl create secret tls <prefix>-<metadata.name>-agent-certs \
  --cert=<agent-tls-cert> \
  --key=<agent-tls-key> \
  --dry-run=client \
   -o yaml |
kubectl apply -f -