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Insert or Update in a Single Operation

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  • Overview
  • Specify an Upsert

In this guide, you can learn how to perform an upsert with the MongoDB Java driver.

Applications use insert and update operations to store and modify data. Sometimes, you need to choose between an insert and update depending on whether the document exists. MongoDB simplifies this decision for us with an upsert option.

An upsert:

  • Updates documents that match your query filter
  • Inserts a document if there are no matches to your query filter

To specify an upsert with the updateOne() or updateMany() methods, pass true to UpdateOptions.upsert().

To specify an upsert with the replaceOne() method, pass true to ReplaceOptions.upsert().

In the following example, a paint store sells eight different colors of paint. The store had their annual online sale. Their paint_inventory collection now shows the following documents:

{ "_id": { "$oid": "606b4cfbcd83be7518b958da" }, "color": "red", "qty": 5 }
{ "_id": { "$oid": "606b4cfbcd83be7518b958db" }, "color": "purple", "qty": 8 }
{ "_id": { "$oid": "606b4cfbcd83be7518b958dc" }, "color": "blue", "qty": 0 }
{ "_id": { "$oid": "606b4cfbcd83be7518b958dd" }, "color": "white", "qty": 0 }
{ "_id": { "$oid": "606b4cfbcd83be7518b958de" }, "color": "yellow", "qty": 6 }
{ "_id": { "$oid": "606b4cfbcd83be7518b958df" }, "color": "pink", "qty": 0 }
{ "_id": { "$oid": "606b4cfbcd83be7518b958e0" }, "color": "green", "qty": 0 }
{ "_id": { "$oid": "606b4cfbcd83be7518b958e1" }, "color": "black", "qty": 8 }

The store received a fresh shipment and needs to update their inventory. The first item in the shipment is ten cans of orange paint.

To update the inventory, query the paint_inventory collection where the color is "orange", specify an update to increment the qty field by 10, and specify true to UpdateOptions.upsert():

Bson filter = Filters.eq("color", "orange");
Bson update = Updates.inc("qty", 10);
UpdateOptions options = new UpdateOptions().upsert(true);
System.out.println(collection.updateOne(filter, update, options));

The method returns:

AcknowledgedUpdateResult{ matchedCount=0, modifiedCount=0, upsertedId=BsonObjectId{ value=606b4cfc1601f9443b5d6978 }}

This AcknowledgedUpdateResult tells us:

  • Zero documents matched our query filter
  • Zero documents in our collection got modified
  • A document with an _id of 606b4cfc1601f9443b5d6978 got upserted

The following shows the documents in the paint_inventory collection:

{ "_id": { "$oid": "606b4cfbcd83be7518b958da" }, "color": "red", "qty": 5 }
{ "_id": { "$oid": "606b4cfbcd83be7518b958db" }, "color": "purple", "qty": 8 }
{ "_id": { "$oid": "606b4cfbcd83be7518b958dc" }, "color": "blue", "qty": 0 }
{ "_id": { "$oid": "606b4cfbcd83be7518b958dd" }, "color": "white", "qty": 0 }
{ "_id": { "$oid": "606b4cfbcd83be7518b958de" }, "color": "yellow", "qty": 6 }
{ "_id": { "$oid": "606b4cfbcd83be7518b958df" }, "color": "pink", "qty": 0 }
{ "_id": { "$oid": "606b4cfbcd83be7518b958e0" }, "color": "green", "qty": 0 }
{ "_id": { "$oid": "606b4cfbcd83be7518b958e1" }, "color": "black", "qty": 8 }
{ "_id": { "$oid": "606b4cfc1601f9443b5d6978" }, "color": "orange", "qty": 10 }]
Note

Not including UpdateOptions results in no change to the collection.

Bson filter = Filters.eq("color", "orange");
Bson update = Updates.inc("qty", 10);
System.out.println(collection.updateOne(filter, update));

The method returns:

AcknowledgedUpdateResult{ matchedCount=0, modifiedCount=0, upsertedId=null }

For more information about the methods and classes mentioned in this section, see the following API Documentation:

←  Update Arrays in a DocumentBulk Operations →
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